API filtration technologies

Weighing Alternative API Filtration Technologies

API filtration technologies
Image source: Google images

Being a process engineer is all about making choices. When it comes API filtration technologies, many different types of equipment can be used for removing catalyst residues. While conventional filtration equipment is operated manually, I recently worked with PharmTech on an article outlining how both candle filters and pressure plate filters are operated as automated systems. This article reviews what we discussed.
Pharmaceutical manufacturers are increasingly looking for automated equipment with in-line process control. Well, automated candle and pressure-plate filtration equipment for removing catalyst residues from API slurries are operated in a closed system. This automated filtration also meets the demand for improved safety and reliability by removing the manual operation.
First, though, you need to understand the difference between candle filters and pressure-plate filters and how they differ from tradition filters. 
Conventional or traditional filters can be defined as bag filters, cartridge filters, manual plate filters, and plate and frame filter presses. These are all manually operated filters. They are not really sealed—especially not when solids get discharged.
Candle filters and pressure plate filters are improvements over these types in terms of reproducible quality, multiple process steps, cleanable and reusable filter media, and full containment for solids recovery. 
A major difference is that the operation of plate filters and candle filters is 100% automated. Solids discharge is provided in a sealed and safe way.

When to Use Candle or Pressure Plate Filters

Deciding between candle and pressure plate filters depends largely upon the cake structure developed by the process solids. 
Cake structures that can maintain their integrity in a vertical form are suited for candle filters. If the cakes themselves are too dense or too light or tend to crack, a horizontal plate filter is the better choice of technology. Thickness of the cake structure is another decision parameter. Candle filters typically have maximum cake thickness of 20 mm, while plate filters can handle up to 75 mm.
Generally, the candle filters and pressure plate filters can be used interchangeably based upon the cake structure itself. Some cakes can be handled in either vertical or horizontal form. In that case, the process dictates the choice.
When it comes to deciding the best filtration type for continuous or semi-continuous processing, consider the upstream and downstream equipment. Both candle filters and pressure plate filters are batch operations. For continuous or semi-continuous operations, either multiple units are required or buffer/holding tanks can be installed.

Pharma Disposal or Recycling

We also discussed best practices for disposal or recycling. For non-hazardous disposal, the cakes can be first washed to remove all of the toxic or hazardous compounds and then dried to a standard of no free liquids. The cakes can be fully discharged in a contained and dust-free manner to totes or drums. 
For recycling, the process solids can be reslurried within the candle filter or pressure plate filter to be pumped back as a slurry to the process. The process liquids or filtrates can also be pumped back to the upstream reactors for reuse.
Questions about alternative API filtration technologies? Other decision parameters I didn’t think about? Let me know, I’m always ready to chat. 


Goodbye 2019, Hello 2020!

man with fireworks
Photo by Rakicevic Nenad on Pexels.com

A new year is a great time for a shift in direction. This blog tries to be different each time. I cover topics ranging from innovation to technical leadership. I’m always looking for fresh ways of doing things in our industry, in process engineering and business development. And I look for new ways to convey these ideas to the marketplace. 

In 2019, I talked about clarification technologies, types of engineers, innovation risk, and the creativity of the octopus. In 2020, look for blogs on orangutans, moonshots, and agile methodology and engineering. But for right now, as we look forward to celebrating a new year, here are some ideas to help you try a new highway in 2020. 

We have a chance for the next decade to be a new roaring ‘20s. Don’t get stuck taking the same routes you’ve always been traveling. Try these approaches for a novel approach to 2020 and beyond:

  • Adopt a positive mindset and see the opportunities

Its easy to get bogged down when a process is not working or a project is going sideways. Learn to accept – everything from setbacks through to challenges. Turn these diversions from your plan or expectations into opportunities.  

  • Be brave and stick to your guns

Maybe you are the innovator with a new idea of how things should be done. If you are sure about the design or process change, then go ahead and make the change.  Remember, to test first and to have all of your facts in place to show technical leadership.

  • Make room for your own creative projects

No matter your work focus, set aside time for your own projects.  Take one hour each morning (for me after yoga) and before you check your e-mails for your personal projects; this will pay off greatly in the long term, on many levels.

  • Don't let the pressure or threat of failure or competition hold you back 

Be confident in your work and don’t be afraid to try something different. We always learn from our mistakes, and from getting out there and gathering more information. With greater knowledge comes greater confidence.

  • Be authentic and believe in yourself

Use more of your judgement and less of other's opinions. As I have written in the past,    learning never ends. And if you try to be what other people want of you, instead of being authentic, it can have negative impacts both on your professional life and personal well-being.

  • Don't ignore your gut but tread carefully

Decision making is never easy. Read more about troubleshooting and how to make better decisions in my 2017 blog.

  • Accept that personal progress can take time but perseverance counts

Any goal takes time.  As loyal readers already know, I sometimes mention my yoga practice, which includes headstands, shoulder stands, tripod stands, etc. These did not happen overnight. But by persevering and keeping an eye on small moments of personal progress along the way, I was able to stick with it and see greater success long-term.

Let’s get ready for 2020. I’ll continue working on this blog and providing new BHS and AVA technical and innovative insights on, Perlmutter & Idea Development.  As you start anew in this fresh decade, I hope you’ll keep reading my blog and my LinkedIn posts. And don’t hesitate to let me know your ideas about technical leadership and other areas of interest for this blog!

 


innovation risks

Innovation Risks & Two Success Stories    

innovation risks
Image source: Business Week

One key element of innovation success is taking risks. I’ve recently read two articles where major breakthroughs in human health started with innovation risks. The two stories are a great reminder that we need to step up to challenges and look at the world anew to innovate!
In our first case, from Business Week, a chemical engineer named David Whitlock became interested in biology after a tubby date asked him why her horse rolls in the dirt, even in the cool springtime months before the biting insects have even hatched. Whitlock was curious too. So he started reading scientific papers and came across a “bacteria, found in soil and other natural environments, that derives energy from ammonia rather than organic matter.”
Whitlock’s took risks for his research. In 2009, he moved into his white Dodge Grand Caravan to study the bacteria culled from soil that he theorized could improve skin disorders, hypertension, and other health problems. And even he’ll admit there were some times he really smelled while experimenting with his soil-based concoctions on himself.  
Still, his innovation risks led to the ground-breaking discovery that these ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) can transform sweat into something more useful. His company now generates almost $2.6 million revenue in cosmetic sprays, shampoos and moisturizers. Microbiomes, “commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms that literally share our body space” are now the focus of many new products. The third annual Skin Microbiome Congress, for instance, welcomed established brands such as BASF, Bayer, Coty, Merck, Nestlé, L’Occitane, L’Oréal, and Unilever.
The article is a great example of a single researcher’s drive and creativity. He didn’t shy away from the tough stuff in pursuit of innovation.

An Eye-Opening Innovation Risk 

A second recent Business Week article is further evidence that it pays to swing for the fences. The article is about manufacturer W.L. Gore & Associates Inc., best known for the waterproof membrane Gore-Tex, and how its willingness to “take more chances” has led to its polymers being used in corneal implants.  
An obsession with a polymer called polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, led William Gore to his discovery of the lighter and yet stronger expanded ePTFE. The polymer is now not only used in waterproof wear, but also in air purifiers, dental floss, high-tension ropes, and stents and surgical patches.
Yet the company was stagnating as competitors introduced alternatives. Gore needed to get ambitious again. When Anuraag Singh encountered Gopalan Balaji in a lunch line at a corporate event, the two natives of India, where corneal blindness is a major issue, asked whether they couldn’t do more with their company’s polymer.

Innovation risks
Image source

Enlisting others, their team sought to modify the polymer to be transparent and light bending in the same way that the human cornea tissue is in our eyes. Their first attempts fizzled and were shelved until a new CEO came to Gore and encouraged innovation risks anew.
With new seed funding to learn more from ophthalmologists, rethink the design, and reconsider their material choices, their team came up with a new prototype. As a sidebar, I have to applaud the hands-on discovery involved along the way: 

“We love putting prototypes and materials on the table,” Singh told Business Week.  “A typical meeting would involve the surgeon and the engineers ‘all kind of hunched over: feeling, touching, poking at things.’”

The result? An artificial cornea that may help to solve a pressing human health problem in developing countries. The plan is for continued research and testing the first implant in humans in 2020 with the goal of bringing it to market in 2026. With cornea tissue damage the 5th leading cause of blindness this innovation risk could have a happy ending.
Ultimately, these two examples are reminders that we need to look around, ask questions, and listen to our communities to come up with ideas. Then we need to take those necessary innovation risks!  


creativity

Creativity: Lessons Learned from Octopuses

creativity
Image source

So, here we go again…intertwining two seemingly unrelated topics — creativity and eight-limbed ocean dwellers — in one interesting blog.
Over the years, as my readers know, I’ve enjoyed discussing fresh sources of innovation. Today, it’s the octopus. 
First some technical details: Octopuses have eight arms, round bodies and bulging bilateral eyes. The 300 species of octopuses live in all the world’s oceans, but prefer warmer, tropical waters. They typically only live between 1 and 2 years, but during that time they like to play. 
That leads us to the good stuff: These creative, intelligent creatures can problem solve and are masterful mimics. Some species can even change the texture of their skin to better hunt and evade predators. Plus, they all lack a rigid skeleton, which lets them contort themselves into amazing shapes. 
Check out the mimic octopus:
creativity
Click here to see the video!

Yet how does a creature that can only see in black and white make these changes? They control special cells just under their skin’s surface — chromatophores — which hold pigment and  change color within milliseconds. Controlled like muscles, these cells can help many octopuses “see” with their arms and learn the patterns, colors, and textures of other animals they want to imitate.  
Sy Montgomery, author of The Soul of an Octopus shares, “three-fifths of an octopus’ neurons are not in their brain, but in their arms,” which “suggests that each arm has a mind of its own”. These arms have sensory capabilities (smell and taste) as well as reach, and can even continue to grasp if severed from the body.
Wile. E. Octopus Creativity
The octopus is a living example of the sentiment in my first blog of 2019, Becoming Uncomfortable. The octopus is always exposing itself to new environments and facing predators.  With creativity and intelligent problem-solving it succeeds. Just as humans need to put themselves out there and expose themselves to new backgrounds, experiences, and more. We can’t blend in like the octopus, so we have to become uncomfortable, but it’s worth it. 
There’s also something we can gain from thinking about the octopuses seeing with their arms. Think how humans might engage differently if we could see with our arms?  We’d be sure to look at tasks in a different manner when thinking critically about process. 
Finally, let’s consider what we’d do with better camouflage. I don't mean you should wear a disguise at work! Still, what if you were to try to camouflage your thinking. You too can be a masterful mimic to problem solve or put yourself in the shoes of the client: “I am not the sales engineer but the lead process engineer” or “I am the Director of Capital Purchasing" or “I am the entrepreneur who needs advice for a process solution while spending my own money.” 
We’re still stuck with bones, so we can’t morph into all the different shapes this amazing creature can manage. A 600-pound octopus can get through a pathway the diameter of a quarter! Yet, the octopus’s sense of adventure also underlines my suggestion to get out into the world and see what’s going on for a new perspective on process solutions and life in general.
I hope you’ll have some fun with this and think about the octopus next time you want to be creative!


engineering standards

Rethinking Engineering Standards: The Importance of Getting it Right

engineering standards


Normally, as my readers know, my blogs cover a wide variety of topics. I like to relate and link seemingly unrelated topics to each other in innovative ways. It keeps our critical thinking faculties sharp! However, this blog deviates from the pattern to share two fresh viewpoints on changes in engineering standards. It’s technical, but important. Science textbooks will need to be rewritten!


It doesn’t happen often, but after a November 2018 vote at the Congress Chamber in the Palace of Versailles, four fundamental units of measure have been redefined. An assembly of metrologists (those who study the science of weights and measures) voted to redefine the International System of Units (SI)’s ampere, kelvin, kilogram, and mole. 


These four units join the meter, candela, and second in being defined not in reference to physical artifacts, but in reference to fundamental physical constants. Scientists say redefining these units to be based on a physical constant will make measurements more accurate and stable. 


Science students may not be too happy about having to pay for new science textbook editions, but the unanimous vote was followed by a standing ovation by the assembly's participants from over 60 countries.


Engineering Standards Must Be Correct


The news was followed up by a Wired blog by Rhett Allain, an Associate Professor of Physics at Southeastern Louisiana University. He agreed the “definition-based standard” was a better choice:


There is a new standard in town, and it's sort of a big deal…It replaces the old definition of the kilogram that didn't even have a definition. The old kilogram was an actual object. It was a cylinder made of a platinum alloy and it had a mass of 1 kilogram. It was THE kilogram. If you wanted to find the mass, you had to take it out and measure it. You could then use it to make other kilograms.  


He was behind the new standard of defining the kilogram using another constant—Planck's constant (the details are in the Wired story). However, Allain also cautioned that there is a wrong way to define the kilogram. “Unfortunately, I have already seen some very poor explanations of this new definition of the kilogram,” he wrote. His fear, he wrote, was that “these super-simple (and technically wrong) explanations might become very popular.”


For example, he cites an example: “The new definition of the kilogram sets it equal to the mass of 1.4755214 x 1040 photons from a cesium atom.” Of this he notes, “That is so bad. I've even seen a diagram with a traditional balance. On one side there is a kilogram mass, on the other side a bunch of photons. Please help; please don't share that kind of stuff. You might as well just say ‘Oh, hey—the kilogram is now defined by some magical spell.’”


For Allain, this change is another argument in favor of his number one rule about science communication:


You can rarely be 100 percent correct in your explanation, but you can be 100 percent wrong. The goal isn't to be correct in your writing—it's to not be wrong.


I have to agree with Allain. Scientific writing is hard, but propagating the “wrong information” can have serious consequences. 


I always encourage readers to test, test, test, and look at things with a fresh perspective. Add to my mantras an echo of Allain’s: write with care.